Bishop, martyr, and possible disciple of St. Peter. Apollinaris was born in Antioch, Turkey, and became the first bishop of Ravenna, in Italy. He suffered exile because of his preaching and converts. When Emperor Vespasian banished Christians, Apollinaris was beaten by a mob and reputedly died soon after from his wounds. His shrine in the Benedictine Abbey of Classe in Ravenna was once a popular pilgrimage destination. Apollinaris was credited with many miracles. He also appeared to St. Romuald, the founder of the Camaldolese. He is patron of Ravenna, Burthscheid, Aachen, Remagen, and Düsseldorf, and he is invoked against gout, epilepsy, and diseases of the sexual organs. Apollinaris is depicted as a bishop in liturgical art. His cult was confined to local calendars in 1969.