Friday, May 29, 2015

The Maid of Orleans; martyrd at 19 years of age

St. Joan of Arc

Image of St. Joan of Arc


Feastday: May 30
Patron of soldiers and France
Birth: 1412
Death: 1431

St. Joan of Arc is the patroness of soldiers and of France. On January 6, 1412, Joan of Arc was born to pious parents of the French peasant class, at the obscure village of Domremy, near the province of Lorraine. At a very early age, she heard voices: those of St. Michael, St. Catherine and St. Margaret.
At first the messages were personal and general. Then at last came the crowning order. In May, 1428, her voices "of St. Michael, St. Catherine, and St. Margaret" told Joan to go to the King of France and help him reconquer his kingdom. For at that time the English king was after the throne of France, and the Duke of Burgundy, the chief rival of the French king, was siding with him and gobbling up evermore French territory.
After overcoming opposition from churchmen and courtiers, the seventeen year old girl was given a small army with which she raised the seige of Orleans on May 8, 1429. She then enjoyed a series of spectacular military successes, during which the King was able to enter Rheims and be crowned with her at his side.
In May 1430, as she was attempting to relieve Compiegne, she was captured by the Burgundians and sold to the English when Charles and the French did nothing to save her. After months of imprisonment, she was tried at Rouen by a tribunal presided over by the infamous Peter Cauchon, Bishop of Beauvais, who hoped that the English would help him to become archbishop.
Through her unfamiliarity with the technicalities of theology, Joan was trapped into making a few damaging statements. When she refused to retract the assertion that it was the saints of God who had commanded her to do what she had done, she was condemned to death as a heretic, sorceress, and adulteress, and burned at the stake on May 30, 1431. She was nineteen years old. Some thirty years later, she was exonerated of all guilt and she was ultimately canonized in 1920, making official what the people had known for centuries. Her feast day is May 30.
Joan was canonized in 1920 by Pope Benedict XV.

The Catholic ministry called "Courage"; a great hope for the Church and those with same-sex attraction

Approaching Homosexuality With ‘True Compassion,’ Not ‘Sentimentality’  

Father Paul Check, executive director of Courage International, says that his organization has answers to the pastoral questions the Church has about providing a compelling witness to persons with same-sex attraction.

CNA/Andreas Dueren
Father Paul Check of Courage International
– CNA/Andreas Dueren

WASHINGTON — If the message to the Catholic Church from the recent referendum in Ireland redefining marriage could be expressed in several words it might be “Rome, we have a problem.”
Dublin Archbishop Dairmiud Martin effectively summed up the Church’s communication problem over its teachings on marriage and same-sex attraction: “The Church has a huge task in front of it to find the language to be able to talk to and get its message across to young people.”
Father Paul Check, executive director of Courage International, believes his organization has an effective approach in speaking this language to the modern world. Courage’s members are seeking to showcase their approach at the upcoming World Meeting of Families and the Ordinary Synod of Bishops on the Family and provide pastoral resources through the film documentary Desire of the Everlasting Hills and accompanying study guide — available in nine languages at that point — their five-part catechetical series and two volumes of essays published by Ignatius Press.
In this interview with the Register, Father Check discusses how the Church’s pastoral care for persons with same-sex attraction must navigate between the extremes of severity and sentimentality to show the authentic love and patient example of Jesus speaking with the Woman at the Well.

What image of the Church’s care for persons with same-sex attraction do you wish to show people at the World Meeting of Families?
It’s that the Church understands this question, because she understands the human person: both in terms of how God has created us in his image and likeness and who he has created us to be, and she also understands it from the standpoint of lived experience of those who have same-sex attraction, those who have found their way to, or been drawn to, the heart of Christ in the Church. Because the truth of the Gospel and the love of the Gospel apply as much to that part of our community as any other part, I think the Church is eager to demonstrate that that is the case in very practical and personal ways.

Is there a way of talking about homosexuality that can drive people away from the Church and the care the Church offers for persons with same-sex attractions?
Unfortunately, yes. We probably have some experience of that in the Church, where there has been a lack of proper understanding, welcome and consideration for individual people. I think one of the challenges that the Church faces is that she almost has to deliver two messages at the same time. One is that the forces that are at work widely in civil society are contrary to the human good: say, for example, the approval of same-sex “marriage.” So she has to say that message [on the truth of marriage] for the benefit of the common good.
But as the same time, she has to announce the mercy and understanding, the love of truth, of the Gospel and Jesus Christ, to individual people for whom this is a reality in their lives. So I am afraid that sometimes the first part of the message is heard as a resounding “No,” but there isn’t always understood or received the outstretched hand in pastoral charity. That is a particular challenge.

How do you address the challenge resulting from people who take a severe attitude engaging others on same-sex issues in the name of “charity”?
I think we have to look at the example of Jesus Christ and how we’re supposed to live out the Gospel. There’s a clarity with which Jesus announces the truth. But the proof that he is announcing it in an engaging way — and it’s a criticism of him! — is that he’s always surrounded by the sort of people that, from our [Catholic] point of view, need him the most.
I think there’s a way to encourage people to trust that the Church understands them, understands the tangle of the human heart and knows how to move forward from that. But it’s not done from a position of condescension or severity. Jesus tells us that the truth is to be liberating. What’s it supposed to liberate us from? Confusion, ignorance, self-centeredness, sin. It’s intended to liberate us so that we are able to renew ourselves. And that’s where we find fulfillment.
The Church has been able to announce the Gospel for 2,000 years, and it has not always been done perfectly in every case. But, certainly, we know it can be done, because we see people responding to grace.

But there are other problems on the opposite extreme, correct?
You’ve mentioned severity, and that’s a real danger, but I think the real problem is “sentimentality.”
The wider-spread problem is that we have separated a thoughtful, compassionate response — a sensitive response — from the truth.
In the opening paragraphs of his last encyclical, the pope emeritus makes a distinction between “sentimentality” and “compassion.” He indicates that the former is a counterfeit and that compassion is something based on the truth. I think a question that all Christians need to ask themselves is something very simple: “Do I believe that chastity is part of the good news of the Gospel?”
I’m not sure how widespread that conviction is, especially in an age where sexual promiscuity (in many forms) is responsible for a lot of broken hearts, a lot of sadness, a lot of regrets, a lot of disappointment, pain, suffering. … Why is that? I think we, individually, can test our own conviction about whether chastity is a virtue and something that prepares us for fulfillment in a way that God, in his wisdom for our nature, is very intense for us.

How would you describe the kind of pastoral approach — the language and the tone — that Courage takes with persons who have same-sex attraction? It seems very deliberate.
We try to be very thoughtful about the words we choose, because we want to be thoughtful about how they’ll be heard. One of the great points of St. Thomas Aquinas’s pedagogy is that “Things are received in the mode of the receiver.” So [human beings] have experiences and perceptions that color or filter or influence the way we hear things.
We [at Courage] are trying to be alert to that, so we don’t sound like we’re poking anyone in the eye. I use John 4 as a guide, because I think what Jesus did there will show us what the New Evangelization should look like. And I think it’s also what Pope Francis is going for as well. It’s how Jesus builds a relationship with the Woman at the Well. He doesn’t begin with a discussion of morality. He doesn’t avoid the moral problem — he will get to it in time — but that’s only after he has built a relationship with the person. He has a common interest — a couple of them — that will be the foundation on which the relationship will be built. She’s interested in God, in knowing more about how the life of God is given to her through grace, and she’s interested in eternal life. And Jesus, of course, knows that.
Maybe this is part of that “law of gradualism” that has been brought before us for our consideration in evangelization. And I think it’s a very good model. We can’t expect that everyone will understand everything right away and, of course, instantly accept that they’re being told to change their lives. That doesn’t make any sense, and it doesn’t seem to take into account the patience and goodness of Christ and the way he approached people.
So I think in Courage we’re very interested in forming and building relationships and letting grace do its work: so that people can come to the truth, in their time and according to God’s providence, in a way that is peaceful for them.

What are some practical steps that individuals and parishes can take to actually be authentic and welcoming toward persons with same-sex attraction?
I think a good place to start is to watch our movies. My conviction is that our best ambassadors are our members. They put a face on the Church’s anthropology, on the Catechism, on the nobility of the human spirit, on virtue and on the efficacy of grace. And so now those categories of things that we know are part of the teaching of the Church achieve a lived expression in the lives of individual people. So to watch the movie is to learn about what this means from the point of view of a person who knows what same-sex attraction is, because they live it. But they’re also drawn to the heart of Christ and believe that the message that the Church offers on this topic is the message of Christ. So I would start there.

Regarding the synod on the family, what are the opportunities for developing the pastoral care of persons with same-sex attraction?
We can’t live without friendship, we can’t live without relationships, and we can’t live without people who know us, understand us and value us for who we are. This is an area in which I think we can do more. We need friends to listen to us and to value us, but if they’re real friends, they do all those things out of love for Christ and love for us, and with no sacrifice of the truth.

What is the one thing Courage hopes to contribute to the bishops’ discussion?
I don’t think we can improve on the testimonial of so many of our members. We have a section on our website that is dedicated to them. It’s where I first point people — and to our films. Those people know something about this life, their feelings and what it has brought them to, in terms of their self-understanding: that they now see in the light of the Gospel and the teachings of the Church.
In another realm, we talk about the importance of the communion of saints as a way to help people to understand the reality of the Gospel. Well, here we’re talking about the reality of the Gospel through the eyes of people who are striving to be saints. They have a lot of credibility, it seems to me, especially in a culture where the “personal narrative” or “lived-story experience” is accorded a certain deference. No one says, “That’s not your experience!” So I think that’s a grammar the world understands. It doesn’t understand Christian anthropology, to an extent, and I can see that. So here’s a grammar we can use.
Peter Jesserer Smith is the Register’s Washington correspondent.

Read more:

Faith and miracles and Pope Francis

Pope's Morning Homily: 'Faith Creates Miracles'

Says Spiritual Sterility and Profiteering Leads to Selfish Lifestyle

Vatican City State, ( Junno Arocho Esteves |  

There are three ways of living that Christ reveals in today's Gospel: spiritual sterility, profiteering and a life of faith. This was the central theme of Pope Francis' homily today at Casa Santa Marta.
According to Vatican Radio, the Holy Father reflected on St. Mark's Gospel, which recalled Jesus cursing the fig tree for not giving fruit. The Pope said that the tree represented the first lifestyle: a spiritual sterility that "does not bear fruit and is incapable of doing good."
"To live for one's self; easy, selfish, that does not want problems," he explained. "And Jesus curses the fig tree because it is sterile, because it did not do its part to give fruit. It represents the person who does nothing to help, who lives for himself, so that they lack nothing. Eventually, they become neurotic, all of them! Jesus condemns spiritual sterility, spiritual selfishness."
The second lifestyle, the Pope continued , is that of exploiting others. In the Gospel, Jesus throws out the money changers for turning the house of God "into a den of thieves".
The Jesuit Pope went onto say that the people who would go on pilgrimage to offer sacrifices at the temple were exploited by the priests instead of being taught to pray or given catechesis.
“It was a den of thieves," he said. "Pay and come in … they were performing the rites in an empty way without piety. I don’t know… maybe we’d do well to reflect on whether we encounter similar things going on in some places.  It’s using God’s things for our own profit.”
However, the third lifestyle Pope Francis noted in the Gospel is the life of faith. After Peter sees that the cursed fig tree has withered, Jesus encourages them to have faith.
"Amen, I say to you, whoever says to this mountain, ‘Be lifted up and thrown into the sea,’ and does not doubt in his heart but believes that what he says will happen, it shall be done for him," Christ says.
The 78 year old Pontiff said that this is the lifestyle of a person who has faith.
"Ask the Lord who will help you to do good things and with faith," he said. "But there’s one condition: when you begin praying to ask for this thing, if you bear a grudge towards somebody, pardon that person. This is the sole condition because your Father who is in heaven also pardons us for our sins.’ This is the third way of living. It’s faith, a faith to help others to draw closer to God.  This faith creates miracles."
Concluding his homily, Pope Francis called on the faithful to pray in order to have this lifestyle of faith. He also urged them to pray that God "helps us to not fall again, us, each one of us, the Church…in sterility and profiteering."

Thursday, May 28, 2015

Blessed Martyrs of Toulouse who fought against heresy

Martyrs of Toulouse


Feastday: May 29

Twelve martyrs put to death by Albigensian heretics nearToulouse, France, on the eve of the feast of the Ascension. Four diocesan priests, three Dominicans, two Benedictines, two Franciscans, and one layman died singing the Te Deum. They were beatified in 1866.

Executed in England for the crime of being a Catholic Priest

Richard Thirkeld


Feastday: May 29
Death: 1583

  English martyr, also listed as Thirkild. Born in Durham, England, he studied at Oxford and was said to be quite old when he left the isle to receive preparation for the priesthood at Reims and Douai, France. Ordained in 1579, he went back to England and served the Catholics in the area around Yorkshire until his execution for being a priest on May 29 at York.

A question looking for an answer

Why do we treat homosexual sins differently than other sins?

A mere five to ten years ago, the following was considered a tolerant and acceptable stance: Openly supporting and promoting natural marriage, while also being kind and loving towards our homosexual brothers and sisters. Today, that same stance is considered "bigoted hate", and its purveyors must be silenced, shamed, and ruined. To hold such a stance (publicly) is now unacceptable. The haters include the Catholic Church and all faithful Christians who speak up against gay "marriage".

The reaction to the simple and clear teaching on homosexuality is so visceral, so violent, so dark, that even otherwise outspoken and proud Catholics are gun shy on this particular issue, telling me that they are afraid to say anything, nervous to be labeled as evil and heartless, preferring to stay silent. This bullying is occurring in the whole western world at the moment, and it's so awful that even some gay people have (mostly quietly, for their own protection) decried what they see happening.

The Church is pretty much the only voice in the world that is not afraid to speak up against this sin (as she has done with other popular sins in the past), standing clearly for what is True. When the Pope and other Church leaders are bold, the rest of the flock finds the courage to speak as well.

But here's something that I don't understand, and it's perplexed me for years. For some reason, many faithful Catholics treat the sin of homosexual acts and gay "marriage" differently than any other sin, sexual or otherwise.

No faithful Catholic is afraid to say boldly that lying, cheating, stealing, blasphemy, greed, adultery, abuse, fornication, abortion, surrogacy, human cloning, contraception/sterilization -- all are grave sins. All have serious spiritual consequences, and we cringe and hurt to see our loved ones committing any of those sins. We hate those sins! We love the people, but we would never hesitate to speak or write on the wrongness and even the evil of those sins, many of which we have ourselves repented of.

But for some reason, active homosexuality sort of gets a pass, and we're told not to be so hung up on the gay "marriage" issue. I've even been told (more than once) that we should not be voting against gay "marriage" or engaging this issue in the public square, because to do so would make Catholics look "mean" and it will make people dislike us! There is a certain sympathy about this particular sin, and a reluctance to condemn it forcefully, that I don't see in any other area.

After the tragic vote in Ireland ushering in genderless marriage, I was heartened to hear the clarion statement given by Vatican Secretary of State Cardinal Pietro Parolin, calling it "a defeat for humanity". There is no question where the Church stands, and firmly. Yet, while I rejoice in the Cardinal's courage, other Catholics believe that statements like this are unhelpful at best, cruel and harmful at worst. They have great concern that such blunt and sweeping statements will not be received well by the LGBT community, that those souls will turn away from the Church, and that evangelization efforts will be hampered.

Here's what doesn't make sense to me about that. Let's say that a once-Catholic nation had been the very first in the world to pass a referendum in which the populace overwhelmingly and joyfully approved abortion. Or adultery. Or euthanasia. Or fill-in-the-blank sin.

Would a forceful Vatican statement against any of those sins be met with disappointment or frustration by the faithful? Would any of my Catholic friends be saying, "We really should not speak that way about [lying, cheating, stealing, blasphemy, greed, adultery, abuse, fornication, abortion, surrogacy, human cloning, contraception/sterilization] because we will offend and alienate [women, doctors, young people, corporate heads, pagans, adulterers, surrogates, etc.]."  Probably not, and yet those groups of people might feel excluded or marginalized or unloved, too. (I'm not being sarcastic, I really mean that.) So, is it that we think of active homosexuality as somehow different from other sins? Or even worse -- is there a sort of soft bigotry going on, where we don't think gay people are capable of hearing and handling the Truth as well as everyone else can?

I've been told that we need to love people, not "condemn" people or make them feel "unwelcome" by speaking Truth out loud and unvarnished. Yet, this is a false dichotomy! We don't choose between Love and Truth. We choose both Love and Truth. In his first encyclical, Lumen Fidei, Pope Francis goes over this, time and again.

There is a micro way to talk about things and a macro way. In the micro, we speak personally to individuals, we get to know them for their own sake, we laugh with them, break bread with them, love them. When sensitive questions arise or questions are asked, we speak the Truth. We are gentle and kind and respectful to all, and if we are not, then woe to us! It will not go well with us as we stand at our Judgement.

But in the macro, the Church as Teacher needs to be unambiguous and clear (and we laity have every right and obligation to repeat that Truth). The moral law is a beacon. It is True for everyone, and when the moral law is transgressed by entire nations, then yes, it is a blow not just to the Church, but to all of humanity. We say this clearly. We don't mince words. We speak the Truth in season and out. Who else will? Who else has been charged by Christ to do so? When we watch a traditionally Catholic nation embrace grave sin with shouts of celebration, we should be heartened, not concerned, to hear our Church speak with a clarion call, denouncing the evil we see.

In the macro, there are millions who do not understand that the Church will never change her teaching on homosexual sin. Most people assume change is coming just around the corner and so settle comfortably in their sin, even feeling "a step ahead" of the lagging Church. In the west, the comfort level for this sin is growing, and more people, not fewer, are becoming lost. If it were any other grave sin, every faithful Catholic would be fighting hard against it, and vocally.

One more thought, and it's personal. For every sinner that is "turned off" or stung by the Church pronouncing unambiguous Truth, there are others, like I was, who desperately need to hear it.

When I was in high school and in the midst of grave sin, I turned to the girl I saw as the most serious and devout of my Catholic friends. I asked her what I should do, whether I should continue on as I had been, down this sinful path (but one I was happy to be on). I will never forget her response. I even remember where I was standing. She placed her hand gently on my forearm, gave me a loving smile, looked me straight in the eye and said: "Leila, I just want you to be happy. You do what makes you happy."

At that moment, I decided to stop worrying about my sin.

She soothed and affirmed me when what I needed to hear was, "Leila, what the hell are you thinking?? You snap out of it right now, turn to God and stay on the straight path! I love you, and I am here to help you!"

I needed her to be the Church for me, not the world. Sure, I felt "loved" in that moment, and that comforting feeling led me to turn from the Truth, for at least a decade.

There are many millions like me out there, who need to hear the Truth clearly, who need to be held accountable to that Truth in order to change. Let's not forget about them and their spiritual needs.

Praise God for the Truth-tellers, and the ones who are not afraid to face the consequences of doing so.

I love being Catholic.
>>>From The Little Catholic Bubble

What "group" of Christians do you belong to

Pope’s Morning Homily: Warns Against Worldly, Indifferent Christians

During Mass at Santa Marta, Speaks About 3 Types of Christians

Vatican City State, ( Deborah Castellano Lubov              

Pope Francis is calling on the faithful to examine what type of Christians they are. During his daily morning Mass at Casa Santa Marta, the Holy Father stressed that there are three key groups of Christians and underscored that Christ's followers are to always bring others closer to him, never create distance.
The Pontiff reflected on today’s Gospel from Mark in which Jesus heals the blind man, who others tried to silence. Bartimaeus, approaches Jesus, who asks what can He do for him. After Bartimaeus told Jesus that he wished to see, the Lord said, ‘Go your way; your faith has saved you.” Immediately, the blind man received his sight and followed Jesus.
The Pontiff suggested that from this reading, we can learn about three types of Christians.
The first group, Francis pointed out, is concerned with their own relationship with Jesus, but is indifferent to others around them.
“This group of people, even today, do not hear the cry of so many people who need Jesus. A group of people who are indifferent: they do not hear, they think that life is their own little group; they are content; they are deaf to the clamour of so many people who need salvation, who need the help of Jesus, who need the Church. These people are selfish, they live for themselves alone. They are unable to hear the voice of Jesus.”
The second group the Holy Father also criticized, saying they do "not want to hear the cry for help, but prefer to take care of their business, and use the people of God, use the Church for their own affairs.” Francis said they "do not bear witness.”
“They are Christians in name, parlour room Christians, Christians at receptions, but their interior life is not Christian, it is worldly. Someone who calls himself Christian and lives like a worldling drives away those who cry out for help from Jesus."
"And then there are the rigorists," he continued, "those whom Jesus rebukes, those who place such heavy weights on the backs of the people. Jesus devotes the whole of the 23rd chapter of St. Matthew to them: ‘Hypocrites,’ he says to them, ‘you exploit the people!’ And instead of responding to the cries of the people who cry out for salvation, they send them away.”
The group we ought to imitate is the third group of Christians, the Pope noted, namely that group which helps others approach the Lord, and draws people closer to Him.
"There is the group that has coherence among that which they believe and how they live, and help [people] approach Jesus, the people that shout, asking salvation, asking for grace, asking for spiritual health for their soul,” the Pope said.
The Holy Father concluded, calling on the faithful to make an examination of conscience and to see whether they draw people closer to Jesus or not.

Take our Catholic faith out into the public square

Cardinal Wuerl in New Pastoral Letter Reflects on Catholic Identity in Public Square

Washington Archbishop Says We Live in 'Age of Challenge' 

Washington, D.C., ( Staff Reporter              

Cardinal Donald Wuerl, archbishop of Washington, is calling on Catholics to live their Christian identity in public as well as in their own spiritual lives.
The cardinal on Sunday issued a pastoral letter, Being Catholic Today: Catholic Identity in an Age of Challenge (en Español). The cardinal notes that a key part of the pastoral letter reflects on “our freedom to be who we are as followers of Christ and some of the challenges of our age as we try to live and share our faith.”
Catholics are called to manifest God’s kingdom, not only in church walls, “but out in the world, building up the common good,” the cardinal writes. “An encounter with Jesus, which we experience in God’s Word, the sacraments, and our works of charity, can transform our hearts, and inspire us to change our world.”
Today, individual Catholics and Catholic educational, health care and charitable institutions “must reflect a genuine Catholic identity with visible communion with the Church, both universal and local, and fidelity to Catholic teaching.”
Chapters in the cardinal’s pastoral letter address the gift of new life through baptism, reflections on what it means to be a member of God’s family, the ways by which people can see the presence of the Church, what it means to choose to be a follower of Christ, the impact of God’s mercy in people’s lives and in the world, and the Church’s contributions to the wider community.
The cardinal explains that as baptized Catholics, “we are engaged in a new life of the Spirit, so that, working in and through us, the Spirit might transform the whole world.” Catholics “are members of God’s family, his Church,” the cardinal writes. “…The Catholic Church is the living and saving presence of Jesus Christ in the world.”
Noting current challenges Catholics face in living their identity, the cardinal points out how in many parts of the world, Christians are being murdered because of their faith. In the United States, the cardinal says laws, policies and practices are being enacted that infringe on the freedom of individual Catholics to live their faith, and on Catholic ministries to carry out their work while remaining true to Church teaching. “Claims of discrimination should not be allowed to become the new weapon for diminishing religious freedom and outlawing institutional Catholic identity,” he says.
Highlighting the impact of the Catholic Church’s ministries, Cardinal Wuerl notes, “Every day in the Church of Washington, lives are changed through our Catholic education, social service and health care programs as we seek to teach, to serve and to heal as Jesus did. All our works reflect Jesus’ call to be his disciples by sharing his love and hope with others. We serve others regardless of their religion or circumstances not because they are Catholic, but because we are Catholic.”
Catholics and the Church’s outreach programs, “must remain true to who we are,” Cardinal Wuerl adds “…As cultural forces and government actions sometimes make it more difficult for us to carry out our work, we must remain true to our Catholic identity.”

Wednesday, May 27, 2015

Patron Saint for skiers especially from the Alps

St. Bernard of Montjoux

Image of St. Bernard of Montjoux


Feastday: May 28
Patron of mountaineers, skiers, the Alps
Birth: 923
Death: 1008

Bernard of Montjoux was probably born in Italy. He became a priest, was made Vicar General of Aosta, and spent more than four decades doing missionary work in the Alps. He built schools and churches in the diocese but is especially remembered for two Alpine hospices he built to aid lost travelers in the mountain passes named Great and Little Bernard, after him. The men who ran them in time became Augustinian canons regular and built a monastery. The Order continued into the twentieth century. He was proclaimed the patron saint of Alpinists and mountain climbers by Pope Pius XI in 1923. He is sometimes fallaciously referred to as Bernard of Menthon and the son of Count Richard of Menthon, which he was not. His feast day is May 28th.
Bernard became patron and protector of skiers because of his four decades spent in missionary work throughout the Alps