The coronavirus shutdown is affecting giving to Catholic parishes around the country in dramatically different ways, data shows, with some expected to see their offertory — parishioners’ donations, typically given at weekly services — down 50 percent, while others have had an increase. A study says a big factor is whether parishes switched to online services or decided to wait the virus out.

How restrictions on indoor gatherings will affect U.S. houses of worship of all kinds has been a question from the start of the pandemic, and with limits on the size of services and reopen dates varying by region, it has been hard to see a clear trend. However, many faith leaders worry that Americans who get out of the habit of attending regular in-person worship will simply stop altogether. That’s especially a concern for Catholics, who more than other faiths depend on in-person, pass-the-basket donations. Other experts see spikes in Americans experimenting and becoming connected virtually to new services and believe that could drive interest — and money — into religious institutions in the future.

Research by the Center for Church Management at the Villanova University School of Business found in three dioceses that the average drop in collections was 7 percent after three years of relatively stable collections. The center projects collections through June — the end of the next fiscal year — will decline on average in the dioceses by 24 percent.

The analysis, which looked at 169 parishes of different sizes, locations and backgrounds, found one in six experienced an increase in donations during the period reviewed. The center’s research looked at the last 15 weeks of fiscal year 2020, which was April through June 2020. The projections extend through June 2021.